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Jpn J Hum Genet. 1995 Dec;40(4):327-32.

Anal atresia: effect of smoking and drinking habits during pregnancy.

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  • 1Division of Medical Genetics, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan.


Using data compiled from 216,707 births from the population-based Kanagawa Birth Defects Monitoring Program (KAMP), we conducted a case-control study to evaluate the effect of maternal smoking and/or drinking during pregnancy on the risk of infants' anal atresia in 1989-1994. The frequency of maternal smoking (including passive smoking) and/or maternal drinking during pregnancy among 84 infants with anal atresia was compared with 174 matched controls. The 84 anal atresias include 49 cases of isolated anal atresia and 35 cases of syndromal anal atresia. Our findings suggest that maternal drinking during early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of isolated anal atresia (OR = 4.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 19.1, p < 0.05). A slightly increased trend was also observed in the association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with both in the pooled groups of anal atresia (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 0.5 to 3.6).

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