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Psychopharmacol Bull. 1995;31(4):711-8.

Gender differences in presentation of chronic major depression.

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Medical College of Virginia, Richmond 23298, USA.


The authors examine gender differences in presentation of illness in 96 males and 198 females with DSM-III-R chronic major depression (i.e., major depression of at least 2 years' duration). Women were found to have increased severity of illness as measured by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Clinical Global impressions (CGI) scores. Symptom comparisons revealed that women experience more psychomotor retardation than men. Women reported increased functional impairment on the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report (SAS-SR), particularly in the areas of marital and family adjustment. Men were more likely to have a history of alcohol and substance abuse/dependence. These findings represent the first systematic study of gender differences in a chronic depressive population.

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