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Plant Cell. 1996 Sep;8(9):1505-17.

Hormones act downstream of TTG and GL2 to promote root hair outgrowth during epidermis development in the Arabidopsis root.

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Department of Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-1048, USA.


The Arabidopsis root produces a position-dependent pattern of hair-bearing and hairless cell types during epidermis development. Five loci (TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA [TTG], GLABRA2 [GL2], ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE6 [RHD6], CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 [CTR1], and AUXIN RESISTANT2 [AXR2]) and the plant hormones ethylene and auxin have been reported to affect the production of root hair and hairless cells in the Arabidopsis root. In this study, genetic, molecular, and physiological tests were employed to define the roles of these loci and hormones. Epistasis tests and reporter gene studies indicated that the hairless cell-promoting genes TTG and GL2 are likely to act early to negatively regulate the ethylene and auxin pathways. Studies of the developmental timing of the hormone effects indicated that ethylene and auxin pathways promote root hair outgrowth after cell-type differentiation has been initiated. The genetic analysis of ethylene-and auxin-related mutations showed that root hair formation is influenced by a network of hormone pathways, including a partially redundant ethylene signaling pathway. A model is proposed in which the patterning of root epidermal cells in Arabidopsis is regulated by the cell position-dependent action of the TTG/GL2 pathway, and the ethylene and auxin hormone pathways act to promote root hair outgrowth at a relatively late stage of differentiation.

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