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Neuroscience. 1996 Mar;71(1):1-16.

Expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha after focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat.

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  • 1Sandoz Pharma Ltd, Preclinical Research 360/605, Basel, Switzerland.

Abstract

Induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha was studied in the brain of rats after focal cerebral ischaemia by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. Using a specific antisense riboprobe for in situ hybridization histochemistry, cells positive for tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA were detected within 30 min in the brain regions known to be necrotic within one to two days after onset of ischaemia. Their number increased over a time period of 1-8 h and then declined. Only a few tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA positive cells could be detected four days after the onset of ischaemia. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction experiments showed that maximal increase of tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA level in the ischaemic brain hemisphere occurred 3 h after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Immunocytochemical experiments using an anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody showed the presence of tumor necrosis factor alpha immunopositive cells as early as 30 min after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the same brain regions where tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA positive cells were detected. Tumor necrosis factor alpha positive cells were highly abundant in the infarcted brain 8-24 h, but only few of them were detectable four days after the onset of ischaemia. Specificity of the anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody and of the induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha protein was confirmed by western blot analysis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA- and protein-positive cells were also detected in the watershed zone and in some structures of the contralateral brain hemisphere. According to their morphology, tumor necrosis factor alpha-positive cells could be identified as microglial cells and macrophages at different states of activation. This assumption was further confirmed by double-labeling studies using the isolectin B4 from Griffonia simplicifolia, a specific microglial/macrophage cell marker. These results demonstrate that expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha is part of an intrinsic inflammatory reaction of the brain after ischaemia.

PMID:
8834388
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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