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Am J Med Genet. 1996 Feb 2;61(4):329-39.

Fetal alcohol syndrome: craniofacial and central nervous system manifestations.

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Birth Defects Genetics Center, University of South Dakota School of Medicine, Vermillion 57069, USA.


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is undertaken on fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) subjects to document central nervous system (CNS) anomalies. The abnormalities found include agenesis and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cavum septi pellucidi, cavum vergae, ventriculomegaly, hypoplasia of inferior olivary eminences, small brain stem, and micrencephaly. Craniofacial anomalies range from the well-recognized FAS physiognomy to the more severe frontonasal "dysplasia" (median cleft face). CNS and craniofacial abnormalities are predominantly symmetric and central or midline. The association of these anomalies becomes self-evident with recognition of the concept of the midline as a special developmental field, vulnerable to adverse factors during embryogenesis and fetal growth and development.

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