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Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1996 Jul;5(7):509-13.

Lifestyle factors and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study in Sweden.

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  • 1Department of Urology, Orebro Medical Center, Sweden.


We examined associations between lifestyle factors and subsequent risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case-control study. Information on smoking and alcohol habits, socioeconomic factors, marital status, family history, and sexual habits were obtained from a questionnaire and a face-to-face interview with 256 (74.6%) eligible patients and 252 (76.6%) selected controls, frequency matched by age and screened for prostate cancer with negative findings. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs). Risk was elevated among current smokers of cigarettes (OR, 1.8) and current users of hard liquor (OR, 1.4); however, the lack of dose-response trend for both of these exposures argues against a causal association. We found tentative evidence that early first intercourse, a larger number of sexual partners, and other indices of high sexual activity are associated with increased risk. Similarly, adult height, an indicator of nutrition during childhood and adolescence, was weakly positively associated with risk, although larger studies are needed to establish this link. Unmarried men had a lower risk than married men (OR, 0.3), and socioeconomic status did not appear to be strongly associated with prostate cancer. Men with a father who had prostate cancer had a more than 2-fold increased risk of prostate cancer, whereas those with a brother affected had about a 5-folk risk.

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