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Behav Res Ther. 1996 Jul;34(7):575-90.

The expression of anger and its consequences.

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Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523, USA.


Cluster analysis, using TRYSYS key cluster variable analyses, on 59 anger expression items replicated Spielberger's Anger-In and Anger-Control dimensions and revealed seven additional forms of anger expression: Noisy Arguing, Verbal Assault, Physical Assault-People, Physical Assault-Objects, Reciprocal Communication, Time Out, and Direct Expression. Aggressive dimensions (Noisy Arguing, Verbal Assault, Physical Assault-People and -Objects) correlated positively with each other and with trait anger and negatively with non-aggressive forms of expression (Control, Reciprocal Communication, and Time Out). The latter were positively correlated with each other and negatively with trait anger. Forms of expression correlated logically with the frequency of eight types of anger consequences, and there was evidence of distinct relationships between anger expression and anger consequences; e.g. Physical Assault-People correlated most with frequency of physical altercations, and Noisy Arguing and Verbal Assault with the frequency of verbal fights. Males were more likely to utilize aggressive forms of expression and to suffer consequences involving physical and verbal fights and property damage. Results are discussed in terms of convergent and discriminant validity, and in terms of their implications for assessment, treatment, and future research.

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