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J Antimicrob Chemother. 1995 Dec;36(6):997-1004.

Activity of fosfomycin in a rabbit model of experimental pneumococcal meningitis.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, University of Göttingen, Germany.

Abstract

Fosfomycin is an antibacterial substance of low molecular weight and negligible binding to plasma proteins exhibiting in-vitro activity against most pathogens involved in bacterial meningitis including pneumococci. Due to these properties the drug has been recommended for therapy of central nervous system (CNS) infections. For this reason, fosfomycin at doses of 10, 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg/h iv, was investigated in the rabbit model of pneumococcal meningitis. Bacterial counts in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) before, and 2, 5 and 8 h after initiation of therapy were quantitated by plating on blood agar. Fosfomycin concentrations in serum and CSF were determined by the agar well diffusion method. The MIC and MBC of fosfomycin for the Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 strain used was 4 and 32 mg/L, respectively. The MIC of ceftriaxone was 0.016 mg/L. In vitro, both drugs showed an additive effect (fractional inhibitory concentration index = 0.75). In vivo at each dose tested, fosfomycin was less active than ceftriaxone (means +/- S.D.): delta log cfu/mL/h at 10 mg/kg/h + 0.130 +/- 0.062 (n = 2), at 40 mg/kg/h -0.217 +/- 0.185 (n = 3), at 80 mg/kg/h -0.270 +/- 0.121 (n = 3), at 160 mg/kg/h -0.331 +/- 0.118 (n = 3) vs -0.647 +/- 0.193 at 10 mg/kg/h ceftriaxone (n = 3). CSF penetration of fosfomycin as estimated by the CSF-to-serum concentration ratio at 8 h was 0.55 +/- 0.22 (n = 11). For bactericidal activity CSF concentrations of at least ten times the MIC were necessary. Coadministration of both drugs (1 mg/kg/h ceftriaxone + 40 mg/kg/h fosfomycin) tended to be more active than either drug alone (in-vivo drug interaction = 1.3). In conclusion, fosfomycin at very high doses reduced bacterial counts in CSF. However, fosfomycin CSF concentrations usually observed in patients with meningitis receiving fosfomycin were not bactericidal in this model. At all doses tested the bactericidal rate was lower than that of ceftriaxone. Fosfomycin is therefore unsuitable as a single agent, but may be used as a reserve antibiotic in combination with a newer cephalosporin for pneumococcal meningitis unresponsive to conventional therapy.

PMID:
8821598
DOI:
10.1093/jac/36.6.997
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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