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J Nutr. 1996 Sep;126(9):2120-9.

Dietary starch composition and level of energy intake alter nutrient oxidation in "carbohydrate-sensitive" men.

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Energy and Protein Nutrition Laboratory and Carbohydrate Nutrition Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, MD 20705, USA.


The effect of dietary starch type on components of 24-h energy expenditure (total, sleep, exercise) were examined in 13 hyperinsulinemic and nine control men, aged 28-58 y. Subjects consumed products containing 70% amylopectin or 70% amylose cornstarch for two 14-wk periods in a crossover design. A 10-wk period of starch replacement in the subjects' self-selected diets was followed by a 4-wk controlled feeding period at 100% maintenance energy intake; diets during the last 4 d of the controlled feeding period provided excess energy, i.e., 125% of maintenance energy. Data for insulin, glucose, 24-h energy expenditure and its components, respiratory quotient and nutrient oxidation were analyzed by ANOVA for mixed models. Although insulin and glucose responses to a starch tolerance test remained greater for hyperinsulinemic than for control subjects, both were reduced with high amylose consumption (P < 0.04). No component of energy expenditure was significantly affected by dietary starch or subject type. However, excess energy intake did increase metabolic energy expenditure (P < 0.0001). Protein oxidation increased with excess energy intake when subjects consumed the high amylopectin starch but did not increase in response to excess energy consumption when the high amylose diet was consumed, suggesting increased protein retention. The magnitude of the response in carbohydrate and fat oxidation was blunted in hyperinsulinemic subjects consuming excess levels of the amylose diet. This may be due to an improvement in overall insulin response or to a change in available substrates for oxidation resulting from microbial fermentation.

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