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Annu Rev Biochem. 1996;65:169-214.

Mechanisms of helicase-catalyzed DNA unwinding.

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1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

Abstract

DNA helicases are essential motor proteins that function to unwind duplex DNA to yield the transient single-stranded DNA intermediates required for replication, recombination, and repair. These enzymes unwind duplex DNA and translocate along DNA in reactions that are coupled to the binding and hydrolysis of 5'-nucleoside triphosphates (NTP). Although these enzymes are essential for DNA metabolism, the molecular details of their mechanisms are only beginning to emerge. This review discusses mechanistic aspects of helicase-catalyzed DNA unwinding and translocation with a focus on energetic (thermodynamic), kinetic, and structural studies of the few DNA helicases for which such information is available. Recent studies of DNA and NTP binding and DNA unwinding by the Escherichia coli (E. coli) Rep helicase suggest that the Rep helicase dimer unwinds DNA by an active, rolling mechanism. In fact, DNA helicases appear to be generally oligomeric (usually dimers or hexamers), which provides the helicase with multiple DNA binding sites. The apparent mechanistic similarities and differences among these DNA helicases are discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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