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J Biol Chem. 1996 Sep 13;271(37):22604-10.

Galpha12 differentially regulates Na+-H+ exchanger isoforms.

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Department of Stomatology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.


Activation of several GTPases stimulates Na+-H+ exchange, resulting in an increased efflux of intracellular H+. These GTPases include alpha subunits of the heterotrimeric G proteins Gq and G13, as well as the low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins Ras, Cdc42, and Rho (Hooley, R., Yu, C.-Y., Simon, M., and Barber, D. L. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 6152-6158). GTPases coupled to the inhibition of Na+-H+ exchange, however, have not been identified. Several neurotransmitters, including somatostatin and dopamine, inhibit Na+-H+ exchange through a guanine-nucleotide-dependent mechanism, suggesting the involvement of a GTPase. In this study we determined that mutational activation of the alpha subunit of G12 inhibits the ubiquitously expressed Na+-H+ exchanger isoform, NHE1. Transient expression of mutationally activated Galpha12 inhibited serum- and Galpha13-stimulated NHE1 activity in HEK293 cells and CCL39 fibroblasts. In addition, in NHE-deficient AP1 cells stably expressing specific NHE isoforms, mutationally activated Galpha12 inhibited NHE1 activity but stimulated activities of the Na+-H+ exchanger (NHE) isoforms NHE2 and NHE3. In contrast, mutationally activated Galpha13, another member of the Galpha12/13 family, stimulated all three NHE isoforms. Although previous studies have identified a parallel action of Galpha12 and Galpha13 in regulating MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinases and cell growth, these GTPases have opposing effects on NHE1 activity.

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