Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Biol Chem. 1996 Sep 13;271(37):22479-86.

Regulation of HIV-1 long terminal repeats by interaction of C/EBP(NF-IL6) and NF-kappaB/Rel transcription factors.

Author information

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical School, University of Reggio Calabria, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy.


We report the characterization of a CAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) (NF-IL6) element encompassing the region from -174 to -166 of the U3 long terminal repeat (LTR) region of HIV-1. This C/EBP cis sequence was found to bind to C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta factors in DNA band shift assay. Transfection of NTera-2 cells with a HIV-1-LTR CAT construct (pC15CAT), together with C/EBPbeta or C/EBPdelta expression plasmids showed that C/EBP proteins strongly activated the HIV-1 promoter. Deletions encompassing the C/EBP-binding site resulted in the enhancement of the LTR activation mediated by C/EBP proteins, suggesting that other sequences located 3' to -170 were indeed the target for C/EBP factors. This possibility was confirmed by using the pCD54E9CAT plasmid, in which the NF-kappaB enhancer was inserted 5' to the HIV-1 LTR TATA box. A NF-kappaB1(p50) expression plasmid was also utilized to test for functional co-operation between NF-kappaB and C/EBP factors. We observed that p50 middle dotC/EBPbeta and p50 middle dotC/EBPdelta complexes were generated in tested cells and strongly activated the HIV-1 LTR by binding to the NF-kappaB sequences. The physical association of NF-kappaB1(p50) with C/EBP factors was assayed by direct interaction of in vitro translated p50 proteins with C/EBPbeta or C/EBPdelta produced as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. Moreover, p50 middle dotC/EBPbeta complexes were observed in vivo by using DNA affinity studies with biotinylated NF-kappaB oligonucleotides. By using mutant forms of p50 or C/EBPbeta proteins we found that the transactivation of HIV-1 LTR by p50 middle dotC/EBPbeta complexes required the DNA-binding domain of p50 and the transcription activation domain of C/EBPbeta.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center