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Free Radic Biol Med. 1996;21(1):65-80.

The utilization of 5-hydroxyl-2-amino valeric acid as a specific marker of oxidized arginine and proline residues in proteins.

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Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.


Alteration of cellular proteins by oxidative modification could represent an important mechanism leading to cellular dysdifferentiation and age-related diseases. There is difficulty in testing this hypothesis because of a lack of specific assays that can measure the extent proteins are oxidized in nonpurified tissue preparations. Some methods used to measure carbonyl groups in nonpurified samples have serious limitations because of interference from other sources of carbonyl groups not being a product of oxidation-mediated damage. Oxidation of arginine and proline residues has been reported to produce gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde, which on reduction and acid hydrolysis, was predicted to form 5-hydroxy-2-amino valeric acid (HAVA). In this article we confirm this prediction using a GC/MS/SIM technique, and carry out additional experiments to determine if HAVA may be a useful marker of oxidative damage in proteins. These experiments utilized purified preparations of arginine, proline, histidine, and lysine amino acid homopolymers and six different purified proteins preparations in nonoxidized and oxidized states. Results demonstrate that HAVA compares well with the carbonyl group formation as a specific marker of oxidized protein, and that the GC/MS/SIM technique can detect HAVA reliably to 150 femtomoles per injection. Thus, HAVA as a specific marker of oxidized arginine and proline could prove to be a useful assay in pure and nonpurified samples.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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