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Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1995;6(3):181-201.

Genetically engineered mice: tools to understand craniofacial development.

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Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, USA.


In this review, we provide a survey of the experimental approaches used to generate genetically engineered mice. Two specific examples are presented that demonstrate the applicability of these approaches to craniofacial development. In the first, a promoter analysis of the Msx2 gene is presented which illustrates the cis regulatory interactions that defined cell-specific gene expression. In the second, a mouse model of the human disease craniosynostosis, Boston type, has been created by misregulation of the Msx2 gene product. Finally. we present a formulary of spontaneously occurring and genetically engineered mice that exhibit defects in developmental processes affecting the craniofacial complex. The purpose of this review is to provide insight into the experimental approaches that are used to create genetically engineered mice and to impress upon the reader that genetically engineered mice are well-suited to address fundamental questions pertaining to the development maintenance, and regeneration of tissues and organs.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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