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J Neurol Sci. 1996 May;137(2):69-78.

Cytokines and adhesion molecules in stroke and related diseases.

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Department of Neurology, University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.


Once thought as immunologically naive, cells from the central nervous system have been shown to become immunologically reactive and produce various substances including cytokines and adhesion molecules. Recent investigations have revealed that mRNAs of certain cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 are expressed in the ischemic brain of the animals. Chemokines including CINC, MCP-1, and MIP-1, as well as adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1. ELAM and P-selectin were also found to be expressed. Although identification of the cells producing these cytokines were often difficult, neurons, endothelia, activated astrocytes and microglia/macrophages were the likely sources. The induction of these molecules in ischemic brain is time-locked and appears to be controlled in a highly regulated manner during the process of ischemic cascade. The functional role, interrelationship, and basic mechanism of action of these molecules are being increasingly recognized, while trials such as antiadhesion antibody molecules, growth factors, and anticytokine antibodies have been successful in reducing the neuronal damage in animals subjected to ischemic injury. Furthermore, changes of certain cytokines or adhesion molecules have been detected in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid of patients with stroke and related diseases suggesting that these molecules play a role in the pathogenesis of human stroke. Understanding of these cytokine-adhesion molecule cascades in the ischemic brain may allow us to develop new strategies for the treatment of stroke.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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