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Transplantation. 1996 Aug 27;62(4):476-9.

Gynecological and reproductive function after liver transplantation.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor 48109-0718, USA.


Women of reproductive age who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation were surveyed to determine timing and pattern of menstruation, sexual activity, contraception, and incidence of pregnancy and gynecological disorders. Eighty two female recipients of liver transplantation at the University of Michigan between August 1985 and January 1992 were surveyed about menstrual function and gynecological and obstetrical histories before and after transplantation. Additional information was retrieved from medical records regarding their liver disease and details of pregnancies and gynecological care. In the year before transplantation, 27 women (42%) reported regular menstrual cycles, 18 (28%) irregular and unpredictable bleeding, and 19 (30%) amenorrhea. After transplantation, 30 women (48%) experienced regular menses, 16 (26%) irregular bleeding, and 16 (26%) amenorrhea. In women less than 46 years old, 27 (53%) had regular menses before and after transplant. Most women with acute liver disease had regular periods before (82%) and after transplant (73%). A total of 95% of women under the age of 46 had return of menstrual bleeding within the first year after transplantation. Of these women 49% had normal liver function tests at the time of survey, 33% mildly abnormal, and 18% severely abnormal. Liver function was not correlated with menstrual patterns. A total of 72% of women were sexually active after transplantation. Of 24 women under age 46 who had not undergone sterilization or hysterectomy, six women conceived seven pregnancies. Seven women reported abnormal cervical cytology results after transplantation. Six underwent colposcopy and 4 required some form of destructive therapy for cervical dysplasia. In women with liver disease, menstrual patterns may change after orthotopic liver transplantation. This is more common in women with chronic liver disease than in those with acute liver disease. There was no correlation between liver function and menstrual regularity after transplant. Return to sexual activity can be expected and pregnancies are not rare in a population of young women after liver transplantation. Regular cervical cytology is critical due to a recognized increase in cervical neoplasia in immunocompromised patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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