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Am J Physiol. 1996 Mar;270(3 Pt 2):F531-8.

Gentamicin inhibits carrier-mediated dipeptide transport in kidney.

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1
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Finch University of Health Sciences, Chicago Medical School 60064, USA.

Abstract

The effect of gentamicin on transport of pyroglutamylhistidine (pGlu-His) was examined in rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, is limited in its usage because of nephrotoxicity characterized in part by transport defects in the proximal tubule. Since there is no information regarding the effects of gentamicin on renal peptide carriers, uptake of [3H]pGlu-His was measured in BBMV following either in vivo or in vitro exposure to the antibiotic. One hour after in vivo administration, the maximal rate (Vmax) for pGlu-His transport was significantly reduced in isolated membrane vesicles washed free of the drug, but the apparent Michaelis constant (Km) was unaltered. Coincubation of membranes with gentamicin during measurements of pGlu-His uptake had a similar effect, causing a significant decrease in the Vmax but not the Km of transport. The addition of 5 mM magnesium to the uptake medium prevented the in vitro but not the in vivo effect. The data indicate that high doses of gentamicin inhibit the capacity but not the affinity of dipeptide transport in the kidney, prior to morphological changes which typify acute tubular necrosis. The in vitro effect is rapid and involves a direct action of gentamicin on the brush-border membrane. The in vivo experiments show that toxicity may be prolonged and remains following removal of the drug from the renal brush border.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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