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Surg Endosc. 1996 Mar;10(3):324-6.

Splanchnic ischemia during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

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Department of Surgery, University of Thessaloniki, Greece.



Experimental studies have shown that elevation of intraabdominal pressure by means of gas insufflation produces hemodynamic disturbances in the peritoneal viscera, leading to splanchnic ischemia. The purpose of this clinical investigation is to reproduce the experimental data in humans undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.


Sixteen females participated in this study. Eight of them (the control group) were subjected to open laparotomy for biliary surgery, while on the remaining eight laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. In all patients hepatic microcirculation was registered during the time of operation using the laser-Doppler technique. A single-fiber laser-Doppler microprobe was introduced transcutaneously within the hepatic parenchyma, through a Chiba needle, under direct or laparoscopic vision. Additionally, gastric intramucosal/intramural pH, a low level of which indicates tissue ischemia, was assessed by means of a tonometric nasogastric catheter. Hepatic microcirculation and gastric intramucosal/intramural pH were assessed between controls and pneumoperitoneum-subjected patients, and within the laparoscopic surgery group, i.e., during pneumoperitoneum and after abdominal deflation.


Hepatic microcirculation was found to be significantly decreased in laparoscopic surgery patients in relation to controls (22.21 +/- 5.48 vs 57.52 +/- 18.06 perfusion units of flow, P = 0.0001) as was gastric intramural pH (7.15 +/- 0.16 vs 7.37 +/- 0.02, P = 0.003). Similarly, immediately after abdominal deflation, hepatic microcirculation exhibited a sudden elevation (22.21 +/- 5.48 vs 67.49 +/- 7.93 perfusion units of flow, P = 0.0001), while gastric intramural pH return to its normal values (7.15 +/- 0.16 vs 7.43 +/- 0.07, P = 0.0001).


It is concluded that during laparoscopic cholecystectomy abdominal organs are hypoperfused, leading to a splanchnic ischemia environment. The clinical significance of these events remains to be clarified.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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