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Protein Sci. 1996 Jan;5(1):5-12.

Identification of an essential acidic residue in Cdc25 protein phosphatase and a general three-dimensional model for a core region in protein phosphatases.

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Mitotix, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.


The reaction mechanism of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) and dual-specificity protein phosphatases is thought to involve a catalytic aspartic acid residue. This residue was recently identified by site-directed mutagenesis in Yersinia PTPase, VHR protein phosphatase, and bovine low molecular weight protein phosphatase. Herein we identify aspartic acid 383 as a potential candidate for the catalytic acid in human Cdc25A protein phosphatase, using sequence alignment, structural information, and site-directed mutagenesis. The D383N mutant enzyme exhibits a 150-fold reduction in kcat, with Kw only slightly changed. Analysis of sequence homologies between several members of the Cdc25 family and deletion mutagenesis substantiate the concept of a two-domain structure for Cdc25, with a regulatory N-terminal and a catalytic C-terminal domain. Based on the alignment of catalytic residues and secondary structure elements, we present a three-dimensional model for the core region of Cdc25. By comparing this three-dimensional model to the crystal structures of PTP1b, Yersinia PTPase, and bovine low molecular weight PTPase, which share only very limited amino acid sequence similarities, we identify a general architecture of the protein phosphatase core region, encompassing the active site loop motif HCXXXXXR and the catalytic aspartic acid residue.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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