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Can J Microbiol. 1996 Jul;42(7):711-4.

An improved microinjection protocol for the transfer of Wolbachia pipientis between infected and uninfected strains of the flour beetle Tribolium confusum.

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Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA.


The lethality of halocarbon and other oils to hatching larvae of the flour beetle Tribolium confusum limits existing microinjection protocols, because postinjection survivorship is only 5.6% of the eggs injected. We report the development of an oil-free protocol that improves survivorship fivefold. We used this protocol to transfect the cytoplasmic endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis from infected donor eggs to uninfected host eggs and observed reproductive incompatibility in 40% of the surviving, injected eggs. Compared with mock injected controls (35.9% survival) or microinjection of uninfected cytoplasm (32.3% survival), injection of Wolbachia-infected cytoplasm into host eggs significantly reduced egg-to-adult survival (25.1%).

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