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Oncogene. 1996 Aug 15;13(4):695-703.

Endoreplication in megakaryoblastic cell lines is accompanied by sustained expression of G1/S cyclins and downregulation of cdc25C.

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  • 1Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidad Autónoma, Madrid, Spain.


In most eukaryotic cells, a link between S and M phases of the cell cycle must be assured in order to maintain the ploidy of newly divided cells. However, in some cell l/pes, e.g. the precursors of platelets megakaryocytes, extra S-phases can occur in the absence of concomitant mitoses, resulting in polyploidy. We have used two established cell lines with megakaryoblastic characteristics (HEL and MEG-01) to investigate the molecular events that lead these cells to bypass the regular control checkpoints that govern the interdependency of S and M phases. In the presence of the phorbol ester TPA, both cell lines stopped proliferating and displayed additional megakaryocytic features, including polyploidization. Analysis of key cell cycle regulatory factors implicated in the control of G1/S and G2/M transitions revealed a number of differences compared to normally cycling cells. Differentiating megakaryocytes were found to maintain high levels of cdk2, and cyclins E and A. This was accompanied by the appearance of the retinoblastoma protein in the hyperphosphorylated, functionally inactivated form. In addition, TPA-treated cells showed high levels of cyclin B and cdc2 proteins, however no activation of cdc2 was detected. This lack of cdc2 activation which should occur for entry into M phase appeared to be related to the down regulation of cdc25C phosphatase found in both differentiated HEL and MEG-01 cells. Together, our results suggest that in differentiating megakaryoblastic cells endoreplication is accompanied by sustained levels of cyclins A and E, and a lack of cdc2 activation, which is probably mediated through down regulation of cdc25C protein phosphatase.

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