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Biochemistry. 1996 Aug 6;35(31):10004-13.

Repair of cisplatin--DNA adducts by the mammalian excision nuclease.

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Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA.


Nucleotide excision repair is one of the many cellular defense mechanisms against the toxic effects of cisplatin. An in vitro excision repair assay employing mammalian cell-free extracts was used to determine that the 1,2-d(ApG) intrastrand cross-link, a prevalent cisplatin-DNA adduct, is excised by the excinuclease from a site-specifically modified oligonucleotide 156 base pairs in length. Repair of the minor interstrand d(G)/d(G) cross-link was not detected by using this system. Proteins containing the high mobility group (HMG) domain DNA-binding motif, in particular, rat HMG1 and a murine testis-specific HMG-domain protein, specifically inhibit excision repair of the intrastrand 1,2-d(GpG) and -d(ApG) cross-links. This effect was also exhibited by a single HMG domain from HMG1. Similar inhibition of repair of a site-specific 1,2-d(GpG) intrastrand cross-link by an HMG-domain protein also occurred in a reconstituted system containing highly purified repair factors. These results indicate that HMG-domain proteins can block excision repair of the major cisplatin-DNA adducts and suggest that such an activity could contribute to the unique sensitivity of certain tumors to the drug. The reconstituted excinuclease was more efficient at excising the 1,3-d(GpTpG) intrastrand adduct than either the 1,2-d(GpG) or d(ApG) intrastrand adducts, in agreement with previous experiments using whole cell extracts [Huang, J. -C., Zamble, D. B., Reardon, J. T., Lippard, S. J., Sancar, A. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91, 10394-10398]. This result suggests that structural differences among the platinated DNA substrates, and not the presence of unidentified cellular factors, determine the relative excision repair rates of cisplatin-DNA intrastrand cross-links in the whole cell extracts.

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