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Nature. 1996 Aug 29;382(6594):829-33.

The lymphocyte chemoattractant SDF-1 is a ligand for LESTR/fusin and blocks HIV-1 entry.

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The Center for Blood Research, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.


Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that activate and direct the migration of leukocytes. There are two subfamilies, the CXC and the CC chemokines. We recently found that the CXC-chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a highly efficacious lymphocyte chemoattractant. Chemokines act on responsive leukocyte subsets through G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors, which are also used by distinct strains of HIV-1 as cofactors for viral entry. Laboratory-adapted and some T-cell-line-tropic (T-tropic) primary viruses use the orphan chemokine receptor LESTR/fusin (also known as fusin), whereas macrophage-tropic primary HIV-1 isolates use CCR-5 and CCR-3 (refs 7-11), which are receptors for known CC chemokines. Testing of potential receptors demonstrated that SDF-1 signalled through, and hence 'adopted', the orphan receptor LESTR, which we therefore designate CXC-chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR-4). SDF-1 induced an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ and chemotaxis in CXCR-4-transfected cells. Because SDF-1 is a biological ligand for the HIV-1 entry cofactor LESTR, we tested whether it inhibited HIV-1. SDF-1 inhibited infection by T-tropic HIV-1 of HeLa-CD4 cells, CXCR-4 transfectants, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), but did not affect CCR-5-mediated infection by macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) and dual-tropic primary HIV-1.

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