Send to

Choose Destination
J Appl Psychol. 1996 Aug;81(4):380-99.

Meta-analysis of the relationships between Kerr and Jermier's substitutes for leadership and employee job attitudes, role perceptions, and performance.

Author information

Department of Management, School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405, USA.


A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate more accurately the bivariate relationships between leadership behaviors, substitutes for leadership, and subordinate attitudes, and role perceptions and performance, and to examine the relative strengths of the relationships between these variables. Estimates of 435 relationships were obtained from 22 studies containing 36 independent samples. The findings showed that the combination of the substitutes variables and leader behaviors account for a majority of the variance in employee attitudes and role perceptions and a substantial proportion of the variance in in-role and extra-role performance; on average, the substitutes for leadership uniquely accounted for more of the variance in the criterion variables than did leader behaviors.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for American Psychological Association
Loading ...
Support Center