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Gen Pharmacol. 1996 Jan;27(1):33-54.

G-protein-coupled receptors in HL-60 human leukemia cells.

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Institut für Pharmakologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.


1. HL-60 human leukemia cells are a widely employed model system for the analysis of signal transduction processes mediated via regulatory heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins). HL-60 promyelocytes are pluripotent and can be differentiated into neutrophilic or monocytic cells. 2. HL-60 cells express formyl peptide-, complement C5a-, leukotriene B4 (LTB4)- and platelet-activating factor receptors, receptors for purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, histamine H1- and H2-receptors, beta 2-adrenoceptors and prostaglandin receptors. 3. The major G-proteins in HL-60 cells are pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive Gi-proteins (Gi2 > Gi3). Gs-proteins and G-proteins of the Gq-family (e.g., G16) are expressed, too. 4. G-protein-regulated effector systems in HL-60 cells are adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C-beta 2 (PLC-beta 2) and, possibly, phospholipase D (PLD), nonselective cation (NSC) channels and NADPH oxidase. 5. The expression of signal transduction pathways in HL-60 cells strongly depends on the differentiation state of cells. 6. Formyl peptides, via Gi-proteins, mediate activation of PLC, PLD, NSC channels, NADPH oxidase and azurophilic granule release and are referred to as full secretagogues. In dibutyryl cAMP (Bt2cAMP)-differentiated HL-60 cells, C5a and LTB4 are partial and incomplete secretagogues, respectively. There are substantial differences in the Gi-protein activations induced by formyl peptides, C5a and LTB4. 7. In HL-60 promyelocytes, purine and pyrimidine nucleotides mediate activation of PLC and NSC channels largely via PTX-insensitive G-proteins and induce functional differentiation. In Bt2cAMP-differentiated HL-60 cells, they additionally activate PLD, NADPH oxidase and granule release via PTX-sensitive and -insensitive pathways. ATP and UTP are partial secretagogues. Multiple types of receptors (i.e., P2Y- and P2U-receptors and pyrimidinocyeptors) may mediate the effects of nucleotides in HL-60 cells. 8. Bt2cAMP- and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-differentiated HL-60 cells express H1-receptors coupled to Gi-proteins and PTX-insensitive G-proteins. In the former cells, histamine mediates activation of PLC and NSC channels, and in the latter, activation of NSC channels. Histamine is an incomplete secretagogue in these cells. 9. HL-60 promyelocytes express H2-receptors coupled to adenylyl cyclase, PLC, and NSC channels. There are substantial differences in the agonist/antagonist profiles of H2-receptor-mediated cAMP formation and rises in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, indicative of the involvement of different H2-receptor subtypes. H2-receptors mediate functional differentiation of HL-60 cells. 10. Certain cationic-amphiphilic histamine receptor ligands (i.e., 2-substituted histamines, lipophilic guanidines, and a histamine trifluoromethyl-toluidide derivative) show stimulatory effects in HL-60 cells that are attributable to receptor-independent activation of Gi-proteins.

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