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Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1996 Jun;234(6):399-403.

A standardized classification of ocular trauma.

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Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA.



No internationally standardized classification of ocular trauma terminology has existed heretofore. Despite a growing interest in eye injuries, the absence of a common language continues to impede both clinical care and research.


A classification was initially developed based on the authors' extensive personal experience. It then under-went repeated reviews over a 3-year period by international ophthalmic specialists. Written and oral suggestions from respondents in 19 countries and from selected ocular trauma experts were considered and incorporated.


By always using the entire globe as the tissue of reference, the new classification is unambiguous, consistent, simple, and comprehensive. It provides definitions for the terms commonly used in eye trauma and creates a logical system of injury types.


In addition to widespread international acceptance by professionals, the new classification has been endorsed by the International Society of Ocular Trauma, the United States Eye Injury Registry, the American Academy of Ophthalmology, the Hungarian Eye injury Registry, the Vetreous Society, and the Retina Society. It can be reasonably expected that the system will ultimately become the standardized international language of ocular trauma.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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