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Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1976 May;293(2):163-70.

The haemolytic effect of phallolysin.


Phallolysin from the toadstool, Amanita phalloides, is a basic protein that causes direct haemolysis of red cells. The dose-response curve is steep; the pH optimum is in the weakly acid range. The rate of haemolysis increases with the concentration of the lysin, the optimal temperature is 20 degrees C. The percentage haemolysis-time curves are S-shaped. Haemolysis is of the non-osmotic type. Ca2+ is not required but inhibits haemolysis in a concentration-dependent fashion, as do Mg2+ and Zn2+. The red cell sensitivity of various animal species decreases in the following sequence:mouse greater than rabbit = guniea pig greater than rat greater than man greater than dog approximately or equal to pig greater than sheep = cattle. Red cells of cattle and sheep are largely resistant. Phallolysin is virtually not consumed on haemalysis: the amount of haemoglobin released increases with the number of red cells applied; on repeated addition of fresh red cells the haemolysate retains its full activity. Phallolysin is not inhibited by serum, albumin, cholesterol, lecithin, cephalin or sphingomyelin; inhibition by red cell ghosts of phallolysin haemolysis is considerably less than that of digitonin haemolysis. At sublytic concentrations phallolysin, unlike benzalkonium chloride, liberates practically no membrane lipids from human red cells. Surface activity of phallolysin does not exceed that of bovine serum albumin.-A saponin-like interaction with cholesterol as the basic mechanism of haemolysis can be disregarded. There is also no evidence suggesting a detergent-like effect.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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