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J Neurosci Res. 1996 May 1;44(3):235-42.

Lipopolysaccharide stimulates differential expression of myristoylated protein kinase C substrates in murine microglia.

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Atlantic Research Centre, Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.


Microglia rapidly respond to lipoplysaccharide (LPS) by transformation from resting to active states and secretion of several neuro- and immuno-regulators including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). With longer LPS treatment, microglia are converted to reactive or phagocytic states with characteristics similar to macrophages in inflammation and injury processes. We have investigated LPS-mediated changes in two myristoylated substrates of protein kinase C (PKC): MARCKS (myristoylated alaninerich C kinase substrate) and MRP (MARCKS-related protein). Within 6 hours of addition, LPS induced a twofold increase in [3H]myristoylated and immunoreactive MARCKS protein and a sevenfold increase in MRP. The differential effect of LPS on expression of MRP vs. MARCKS was even more dramatic at the level of transcription: S1 nuclease protection assays revealed a 40-fold increase in MRP mRNA levels (maximum at 4-6 hours), whereas a threefold increase was observed for MARCKS. TNF alpha and colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), two cytokines which are induced by LPS, did not reproduce the observed effect of LPS on MARCKS and MRP gene transcription. CSF-1 also induced differential transcription of MRP, but of lower magnitude (threefold) and more sustained than by LPS. Accordingly, these two substrates for PKC are differentially up-regulated by LPS, apparently independent of TNF alpha or CSF-1.

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