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Drug Metab Dispos. 1996 May;24(5):602-9.

Characterization of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of dolasetron. Comparison with other indole-containing 5-HT3 antagonists.

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Department of Drug Metabolism, Marion Merrell Research Institute, Inc., Strasbourg, France.


Dolasetron mesilate [(2 alpha, 6 alpha, 8 alpha, 9a beta)-octahydro-3-oxo-2,6-methano-2H-quinolizin-8-yl-1H-indole-3-c arboxylate monomethane-sulfonate], is a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, which is in development for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced emesis. The compound is rapidly reduced by carbonyl reductase to form its major pharmacologically active metabolite reduced dolasetron (red-dolasetron), which us further metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP450). Studies were conducted, using human liver microsomes, to characterize the CYP450 enzymes responsible for the in vitro metabolism of red-dolasetron. Red-dolasetron underwent oxidation of the indole aromatic ring at positions 5, 6, and 7, and also N-oxidation. Enzyme-selective inhibition and correlation studies showed that hydroxylation of red-dolasetron was CYP2D6-dependent, and N-oxidation was conducted by CYP3A4. The rate of formation of 6-hydroxy red-dolasetron was significantly correlated with that of 5-hydroxy red-dolasetron, which further suggested that these metabolites were formed by the same CYP450 enzyme(s). Inhibition studies also demonstrated that 6-hydroxylation was, to a lesser extent, CYP3A4-dependent. This was confirmed by correlation experiments, wherein formation of this metabolite was significantly correlated with that of N-oxide formation, in quinidine-inhibited microsomes. Results were compared with those obtained with two other indole-containing 5-HT3 receptor antagonists: tropisetron and ondansetron. Tropisetron hydroxylation was CYP2D6-dependent, whereas that of ondansetron was both CYP2D6- and CYP2E1-dependent. Results were further confirmed, when compounds were incubated with microsomes containing recombinant human liver CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP2E1. Red-dolasetron was a competitive inhibitor of CYP2D6, with an IC50 value of 70 microM, which is 2 orders of magnitude above maximum plasma concentrations found in humans. The implications of these in vitro results to the in vivo metabolism of these compounds in humans and their potential pharmacokinetic consequences is discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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