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Dysphagia. 1996 Spring;11(2):93-8.

A penetration-aspiration scale.

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Department of Neurology, William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, USA.


The development and use of an 8-point, equal-appearing interval scale to describe penetration and aspiration events are described. Scores are determined primarily by the depth to which material passes in the airway and by whether or not material entering the airway is expelled. Intra- and interjudge reliability have been established. Clinical and scientific uses of the scale are discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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