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J Biotechnol. 1996 Jan 26;44(1-3):225-31.

Toward selective elicitation of TH1-controlled vaccination responses: vaccine applications of bacterial surface layer proteins.

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Zentrum für Ultrastrukturforschung Universität für Bodenkultur, Wien Austria.


Bacterial surface layer proteins have been utilized as combined vaccine carrier/adjuvants and offer a number of advantages in these applications. The crystalline protein arrays contain functional groups in precisely defined orientations for coupling of haptens. Conventional applications of S-layer vaccines do not cause observable trauma or side effects. Depending on the nature of the S-layer preparations, antigenic conjugates will induce immune responses of a predominantly cellular or predominantly humoral nature. Immune responses to S-layer-hapten conjugates are also observed following oral/nasal application. In the present contribution, the status of investigations with S-layer conjugates in three main immunological projects is reviewed. In a project aimed at immunotherapy of cancer, conjugates of S-layer with small, tumor-associated oligosaccharides have been found to elicit hapten-specific DTH responses. An enlarged program of chemical synthesis has now been initiated to prepare a complete set of mucin-derived, tumor-associated oligosaccharides and their chemically modified analogues for elicitation of cell-mediated immune responses to certain tumors in humans. In another application, oligosaccharides derived from capsules of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 8 have been linked to S-layer proteins and have been found to elicit protective antibody responses in animals. Most recently, allergen S-layer conjugates have been prepared with the intention to suppress the TH2-directed, IgE-mediated allergic responses to Bet nu 1, the major allergen of birch pollen. In the former two applications, the S-layer vaccine technology appears to offer the versatility needed to direct vaccination responses toward predominant control by TH1 or TH2 lymphocytes to meet the different therapeutic or prophylactic requirements in each case. In the third application, work has progressed to a preliminary stage only.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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