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J Med Chem. 1996 Jul 5;39(14):2764-72.

Dopamine D3 and D4 receptor antagonists: synthesis and structure--activity relationships of (S)-(+)-N-(1-Benzyl-3-pyrrolidinyl)-5-chloro-4- [(cyclopropylcarbonyl) amino]-2-methoxybenzamide (YM-43611) and related compounds.

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Institute for Drug Discovery Research, Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Ibaraki, Japan.


In this study, we synthesized a series of (S)-N-(3-pyrrolidinyl)benzamide derivatives, 1, 2a-d, 5a-1, and 7, and their enantiomers, (R)-1 and (R)-5c-e, and evaluated their binding affinity for cloned dopamine D2, D3, and D4 receptors and their inhibitory activity against apomorphine-induced climbing behavior in mice. The results indicate that D2, D3, and D4 receptors have different bulk tolerance (D4 > D3 > D2) for the substituent of the 4-amino group (R1) on the benzamide nuclei and that cyclopropyl-, cyclobutyl-, and cyclopentylcarbonyl groups likely possess adequate bulkiness with respect to D3 and D4 affinity and selectivity over D2 receptors in this series. The results also suggested that the N-substituent (R2) on the pyrrolidin-3-yl group performs an important role in expressing affinity for D2, D3, and D4 receptors and selectivity among the respective subtypes. One of the compounds, (S)-(+)-N-(1-benzyl-3-pyrrolidinyl)-5-chloro-4-[(cyclopropylcarbonyl+ ++) amino]-2-methoxybenzamide (5c) (YM-43611), showed high affinity for D3 and D4 receptors (Ki values of 21 and 2.1 nM, respectively) with 110-fold D4 selectivity and 10-fold D3 preference over D2 receptors and weak or negligible affinity for representative neurotransmitter receptors. Compound 5c displayed potent antipsychotic activity in inhibiting apomorphine-induced climbing behavior in mice (ED50 value, 0.32 mg/kg sc).

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