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Hypertension. 1996 Mar;27(3 Pt 1):404-7.

Sodium intake markedly alters renal interstitial fluid adenosine.

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Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville 22908, USA.


Adenosine is produced locally in the kidney. Accumulating data suggest that adenosine plays a role in regulating renal functions. Using a microdialysis technique, we monitored adenosine levels in cortical and medullary renal interstitial fluid and urine after 5 days of diets containing low (0.15%), normal (0.28%), and high (4.0%) sodium. Samples were collected from anesthetized rats (n=5 for each diet). Microdialysis fluid was infused at a rate of 1 microL/min. Adenosine, measured by radioimmunoassay, was stable in the dialysate. During normal sodium intake, renal interstitial fluid adenosine estimated from the concentration in dialysate leaving the cortex was 63 +/- 6 nmol/L, which was significantly lower than in dialysate leaving the medulla (157 +/- 6 nmol/L, P<.01). The concentration of interstitial medullary adenosine was estimated to be 190 nmol/L. In rats consuming a low sodium diet, renal cortical and medullary dialysate adenosine concentrations were significantly decreased (P<.01) by 62.6% and 64.9%, respectively. Rats consuming a high sodium diet had renal cortical and medullary dialysate adenosine concentrations that were increased 18.2- and 18.9-fold, respectively (P<.01), compared with levels in rats on a low sodium diet. Similar to changes in dialysate adenosine, urinary adenosine concentration decreased during low sodium intake (P<.01) and increased during high sodium intake (P<.01). The higher adenosine levels in renal medullary than in cortical interstitial fluid may reflect its major renal site of generation. The changes in renal adenosine generation with sodium intake may reflect renal energy expenditure.

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