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J Clin Anesth. 1996 Feb;8(1):63-79.

Controlling the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation.

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Department of Anesthesiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City 66160-7415, USA.


The hemodynamic response to the stress of laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation does not present a problem for most patients. However, patients with cardiovascular or cerebral disease may be at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from the tachycardia and hypertension resulting from this stress. These hemodynamic effects gained notice after the introduction and use of muscle relaxants, such as curare and succinylcholine, for endotracheal intubation at the time of anesthesia induction. A variety of anesthetic techniques and drugs are available to control the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation. The method or drug of choice depends on many factors, including the urgency and length of surgery, choice of anesthetic technique, route of administration, medical condition of the patient, and individual preference. The possible solutions number as many as the medications and techniques available and depend on the individual patient and anesthesia care provider. This paper reviews these medications and techniques to guide the clinician in choosing the best methods.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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