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Mutat Res. 1996 Jun;340(2-3):51-65.

Optimization of the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay for urine mutagenesis by experimental designs.

Author information

1
Laboratoire de Biogénotoxicologie et Mutagénèse Environnementale (EA 1784), Faculté de Pharmacie, Marseille, France.

Abstract

Assessing urine mutagenicity with the Salmonella mutagenicity test is often limited by the volumes of the samples. Optimization of the assay was performed with factorial and Doehlert designs. Two fractional factorial designs 2(3-1) (3 factors, 4 experiments) were used to estimate the main effects of the percent S9 in the mix, the time of liquid incubation, the inoculum size and the growth conditions. A Doehlert design (3 factors, 13 experiments) was used to study the main effects and the interactions of the NADP, G6P and S9 in the mix. The positive markers were benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, 0.3 microgram/plate) and a pool of smokers' urine (SU, 1.25 ml equivalent/plate). The response was limited to the induction factor (IF, number of induced revertants/number of spontaneous revertants) with Salmonella typhimurium TA98. The optimal conditions for BaP were: a 60 min period of liquid incubation and a volume of 0.1 ml (approx. 10(8) cells/plate) of an overnight culture grown in 50 ml of Nutrient Broth No. 2 from a 250 ml flask. The S9 mix (0.1 ml, final volume) included 1.5% of S9, 1.0 mM NADP and 4.4 mM G6P. The maximal IF was 15.79. The optimal conditions for SU were: a 60 min period of liquid incubation and a volume of 0.1 ml (approx. 10(8) cells/plate) of an overnight culture grown in 7 ml of Nutrient Broth No. 2 from a 20 x 180 mm tube. The S9 mix (0.1 ml, final volume) included: 4% S9, 4.2 mM NADP and 5.2 mM G6P. The maximal IF was 10.95. These optimal conditions did not modify the spontaneous frequencies of the tester strains: TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102. The dose-response curves of mutagenic urine samples were found to be non-linear. This micromethod required 8-fold less urine sample and 12.5-fold less liver homogenate as compared to the standard plate incorporation assay and was from 6.2- to 11.8-fold more sensitive to evaluate urine mutagenicity. The sensitivity of this technique was found to be limited to individuals smoking more than approx. 5 cigarettes/day by the standard extraction-concentration procedure.

PMID:
8692182
DOI:
10.1016/s0165-1110(96)90039-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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