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Kidney Int. 1996 Apr;49(4):953-8.

Endoplasmic reticulum phosphate transport.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom.


The major role of the liver endoplasmic reticulum phosphate/pyrophosphate transport proteins is the regulation of blood glucose levels. The glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme is an endoplasmic reticulum enzyme system which hydrolyzes glucose-6-phosphate to glucose and phosphate. Glucose-6-phosphatase is the terminal step of both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. The glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme is a very hydrophobic membrane protein and its active site is inside the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. The substrates and products of the enzyme therefore have to cross the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme is associated with a calcium binding protein (SP). There are also transport proteins for the substrate glucose-6-phosphate (T1) and the products phosphate (T2) and glucose (T3). There appear to be at least two different liver endoplasmic reticulum proteins that can transport phosphate. One of the proteins T2b can also transport pyrophosphate and carbamyl phosphate which are also substrates for the glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme. The metabolic regulation, genetic deficiencies, ontogeny and tissue distribution of the endoplasmic reticulum T2 proteins will be described.

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