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Ann Epidemiol. 1995 Nov;5(6):478-83.

Relationship of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and dietary habits with sigmoid colon adenomas.

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Department of Public Health, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan.


The relationship between cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and dietary factors and the risk of adenomas of the sigmoid colon was examined in male self-defense officials who received a preretirement health examination at three Self-Defense Forces hospitals in Japan. In the comparison between 228 patients with sigmoid adenomas and 1484 control subjects with normal colonoscopy findings (> or = 60 cm from the anus), a clear dose-response relationship was observed between cigarette smoking and risk of adenoma. After adjustment for rank, body mass index, alcohol use, and physical activity as well as for hospital and survey season, the odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for the categories of 0, 1 to 399, 400 to 799, and 800 or more cigarette-years were 1.0, 2.1 (1.2 to 3.5), 2.8 (1.8 to 4.3), and 3.5 (2.1 to 5.8), respectively. Current alcohol drinkers tended to have an increased risk, but without a dose-response relation. Among four types of alcoholic beverages (shochu, sake, beer, and whiskey), only whiskey showed a weak association with risk of adenoma. None of the 13 dietary items studied (including meat and rice consumption) was measurably associated with adenoma risk. The present findings provide additional evidence that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for colon adenomas. It is inconclusive regarding alcohol intake's association with adenoma risk.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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