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Curr Biol. 1996 Feb 1;6(2):149-62.

The evolution of chromosomal sex determination and dosage compensation.

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Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637-1573, USA.


In many species, sex is determined by a system based on X and Y chromosomes, the latter having lost much of their genetic activity. Y chromosomes have evolved independently many times, and the associated change in gene dosage in the heterogametic (XY) sex is often compensated for by regulatory mechanisms which ensure equal amounts of gene products of X-linked loci in males and females. There have recently been substantial advances in our knowledge of the molecular biology and genetics of sex chromosomes and dosage compensation, and in our understanding of the population genetic processes which are involved in their evolution.

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