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Eur J Pharmacol. 1996 Feb 22;297(3):257-63.

Role of nitric oxide and prostaglandins in lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in vascular permeability in mouse skin.

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Department of Pharmacology, Tokyo Women's Medical College, Japan.


To examine the possible role of increased vascular permeability in the circulatory shock induced by endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), we examined whether lipopolysaccharide elicits plasma extravasation in the skin of ddY strain mice. We also studied whether nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins may mediate the lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in vascular permeability. Subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (100-400 micrograms/site) induced a dose-related and delayed increase in vascular permeability at the injection site as determined by the leakage of pontamine sky blue. Concurrent administration of aminoguanidine (a putative inducible NO synthase inhibitor) (10 mg/kg, i.v.) inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (400 micrograms/site)-induced dye leakage by 71%. N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an inhibitor for both constitutive and inducible NO synthase) (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.v.) inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced dye leakage by 36% and 54%, respectively, whereas the inactive enantiomer, N(G)-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (10 mg/kg, i.v.), had no effect. Pretreatment with an intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone (500 micrograms/kg) or indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 inhibitor) (5 mg/kg) almost completely inhibited the response induced by lipopolysaccharide, by 96% and 84%, respectively. [N-(2-Cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl) methanesulphonamide (a cyclooxygenase-2-specific inhibitor) (0.01-1 mg/kg, i.p.) also induced a dose-related inhibition of dye leakage elicited by lipopolysaccharide: 38% and 80% suppression at the doses of 0.1 and 1 mg/kg, respectively. Cycloheximide (a protein biosynthesis inhibitor) (35 mg/kg, s.c.) suppressed the effect of lipopolysaccharide by 74%. These results suggest that the increase in vascular permeability induced by lipopolysaccharide is mediated by both NO and prostaglandins and that synthesis of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 may be involved in this effect of lipopolysaccharide.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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