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World J Surg. 1996 May;20(4):474-81.

Nutritional support to prevent and treat multiple organ failure.

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Ideon Research Center, University of Lund, Suite A 230, Beta House, S-22370 Lund, Sweden.


Enteral nutrition (EN) has several advantages over parenteral nutrition (PN) for postoperative/posttrauma patients. Modern technologies for tube-feeding have made early EN possible. Jejunal tube-feeding has advantages over gastric tube-feeding: faster metabolic recovery, less vomiting, and less risk of regurgitation and aspiration. Immediate or early EN stimulates the splanchnic and hepatic circulations, improves mucosal blood flow, prevents intramucosal acidosis and permeability disturbances, and eliminates the need for stress ulcer prophylaxis. Saliva containing important antimicrobial substances and gastric acidity are important in sepsis prevention. Chewing, saliva, and gastric acidity support gastric nitric oxide (NO) release, important for mucosal blood flow, gastrointestinal (GI) motility, mucus formation, and bacteriostasis. An oral supply of NO-donating substances and chewing of nitrate-rich food, such as lettuce or spinach, can be useful. Oral and mucosa-protective lipids are recommended. H2 blockers and saliva-inhibiting drugs are avoided. Immediate EN should be given, starting with 25 ml/hr and increasing to 100 ml/hr over 24 to 48 hours. For the immunocompromised patient special attention should be given to the purity of water. Bottled water can contain bacteria such as Pseudomonas. Food antioxidants such as glutathione, vitamin E, and beta-carotenes are important. Ingredients for the colonic mucosa are important. Approximately 10% of caloric need is satisfied by so-called colonic food (prebiotics), fermented at the level of the colonic mucosa to produce colonic mucosa nutrients and to prevent gut origin sepsis. More than 10 g of fiber per day is recommended. The fermenting flora (probiotic flora) is deranged owing to disease or antibiotic treatment, and resupply of flora is important. A new concept of ecoimmune nutrition is presented for enteral supply of mucosa-reconditioning ingredients: new surfactants, pseudomucus, fiber, amino acids such as arginine, and mucosa-adhering Lactobacillus plantarum 299.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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