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Mol Cell Biol. 1996 Apr;16(4):1695-705.

Isolation and characterization of the cDNA encoding BKLF/TEF-2, a major CACCC-box-binding protein in erythroid cells and selected other cells.

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Division of Hematology-Oncology, Children's Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.


CACCC boxes are among the critical sequences present in regulatory elements of genes expressed in erythroid cells, as well as in selected other cell types. While an erythroid cell-specific CACCC-box-binding protein, EKLF, has been shown to be required in vivo for proper expression of the adult beta-globin gene, it is dispensable for the regulation of several other globin and nonglobin erythroid cell-expressed genes. In the work described here, we searched for additional CACCC-box transcription factors that might be active in murine erythroid cells. We identified a major gel shift activity (termed BKLF), present in yolk sac and fetal liver erythroid cells, that could be distinguished from EKLF by specific antisera. Through relaxed-stringency hybridization, we obtained the cDNA encoding BKLF, a highly basic, novel zinc finger protein that is related to EKLF and other Kr├╝ppel-like members in its DNA-binding domain but unrelated elsewhere. BKLF, which is widely but not ubiquitously expressed in cell lines, is highly expressed in the midbrain region of embryonic mice and appears to correspond to the gel shift activity TEF-2, a transcriptional activator implicated in regulation of the simian virus 40 enhancer and other CACCC-box-containing regulatory elements. Because BKLF binds with high affinity and preferentially over Sp1 to many CACCC sequences of erythroid cell expressed genes, it is likely to participate in the control of many genes whose expression appears independent of the action of EKLF.

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