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J Urol. 1996 Jul;156(1):157-9.

Micturition disturbances and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

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Department of Urology, Bichat Hospital, Paris, France.



Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections often lead to urological disorders, including tumors, infections and micturitional disturbances. It often is difficult to identify the origin of voiding disorders but the most frequent causes are infections (prostatitis and so forth), obstruction (cervico-prostatic or urethral) and neurological (encephalitis, myelitis, polyradiculoneuritis and so forth). We determined the etiologies, therapy and clinical outcome of micturitional disturbances in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.


Between February 1989 and September 1992 we studied prospectively 39 HIV positive patients with voiding symptoms, such as straining, urinary retention, frequency and urgency. Each patient underwent a thorough neurological and urological examination, along with radiological evaluation of the urogenital tract and nervous system. Urodynamic evaluation was performed to specify the etiology and type of disturbance before treatment. The patients were followed for 2 to 24 months (mean 9) and 34 (87%) had urodynamic abnormalities, including a hyperactive bladder, bladder sphincter dyssynergia and a hypoactive bladder.


The cause of the voiding disorder was neurological in 61.5% of the cases, and the 2 most frequent disorders were cerebral toxoplasmosis and HIV encephalitis. Treatment was usually given to relieve symptoms with drugs acting on the detrusor-sphincter complex. A total of 22 patients (57%) had lasting improvement, while 17 (43%) died 2 to 24 months (mean 8) after onset of the voiding symptoms.


A micturition problem is an unfavorable event since it usually indicates a neurological cause.

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