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J Pediatr. 1996 Jun;128(6):757-64.

Risk factors for carriage of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae among children in Memphis, Tennessee.

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Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.



To determine risk factors for carriage of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae to understand better the factors promoting spread of these isolates.


We obtained medical and demographic information and nasopharyngeal swab specimens from 216 children less than 6 years old with upper respiratory tract infections, seeking medical care at five Memphis, Tenn, study sites. We evaluated risk factors for carriage of penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae (NSSP) among 100 children with S. pneumoniae isolates. Patterns of antimicrobial prescription were recorded for enrolled children.


Independent risk factors for carriage of NSSP included an increased number of antimicrobial treatment courses during the previous 3 months and white race. Day care attendance approached statistical significance (p = 0.07). Most children with upper respiratory tract infection received a prescription for antimicrobial drugs. These prescriptions were more common for white children than for black children.


Increased use of antimicrobial drugs enhances the risk of carriage of NSSP. This may contribute to the higher risk among white children of NSSP infection; however, after control for antimicrobial use, white children were still at an increased risk of infection with NSSP, possibly through greater exposure to resistant strains.

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[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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