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J Infect Dis. 1996 Jun;173(6):1313-9.

Evaluation of live attenuated influenza vaccines in children 6-18 months of age: safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Program and the Wyeth-Ayerst ca Influenza Vaccine Investigators Group.

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Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-2581, USA,


Live attenuated, cold-adapted (ca) monovalent and bivalent influenza A vaccines were evaluated in seronegative infants (ages 6-18 months) in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess safety and immunogenicity. A total of 182 seronegative subjects received a single intranasal dose (10(6.2) TCID50) of ca A/Kawasaki/9/86 (H1N1) or ca A/Los Angeles/2/87 (H3N2), both as a bivalent vaccine, or placebo. Respiratory and systemic symptoms did not differ between groups after vaccination. Hemagglutination antibody seroconversions (> or = 1:8) to H3N2 exceeded 90%. In contrast, seroconversions to A/Kawasaki/9/86 (H1N1) were significantly less frequent in bivalent ca vaccine recipients (31%) than in monovalent ca H1N1 recipients (83%) (P < .002). During a subsequent H3N2 epidemic, nasal washes were cultured for viruses from any subject with respiratory illness. H3N2 infections documented by virus isolation were reduced by 65% in ca H3N2 recipients compared with placebo or ca HIM recipients (P = .01).

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