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J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996 Jun;27(7):1678-87.

Intravascular ultrasound predictors of restenosis after percutaneous transcatheter coronary revascularization.

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Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging Laboratory, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC.



This study sought to evaluate preintervention and postintervention intravascular ultrasound studies for potential predictors of angiographic restenosis and to use ultrasound predictors of restenosis to enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of the restenosis disease process.


Restenosis remains the major limitation of percutaneous transcatheter coronary revascularization. Although its mechanisms remain incompletely understood, numerous studies have identified some of the clinical, anatomic and procedural risk factors for restenosis. Intravascular ultrasound imaging of target lesions before and after catheter-based treatment consistently demonstrates more target lesion calcium, more extensive reference segment atherosclerosis, smaller final lumen dimensions, significant residual plaque burden and a greater degree of tissue trauma than is evident by angiography.


Intravascular ultrasound studies were performed in 360 nonstented native coronary artery lesions (final diameter stenosis 18 +/- 11%) in 351 patients for whom follow-up angiographic data were available 6.4 +/- 3.6 months later. Hospital charts were reviewed, and qualitative and quantitative coronary angiographic and intravascular ultrasound analyses were performed by independent core laboratories. Four dependent angiographic end points were tested: restenosis as a binary definition (> or = 50% diameter stenosis at follow-up) was the primary end point; follow-up diameter stenosis, late lumen loss and follow-up minimal lumen diameter were the secondary end points.


Reference vessel size, the preintervention quantitative coronary angiographic assessment of lesion severity and the postintervention intravascular ultrasound cross-sectional measurements predicted the late angiographic results. In particular, the intravascular ultrasound postintervention cross-sectional narrowing (plaque plus media cross-sectional area divided by external elastic membrane cross-sectional area) predicted the primary end point (restenosis) and two of the three secondary end points (follow-up diameter stenosis and late lumen loss) and was therefore the most consistent predictor of restenosis.


Intravascular ultrasound variables are more powerful and consistent predictors of angiographic restenosis than currently accepted clinical or angiographic risk factors.

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