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J Am Coll Nutr. 1996 Feb;15(1):49-55.

Fat intake of women during normal pregnancy: relationship with maternal and neonatal essential fatty acid status.

Author information

1
Department of Human Biology, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To study the relationships between the essential fatty acid (EFA) composition of maternal diet, maternal EFA status and the EFA status of healthy newborn infants.

METHODS:

A prospective longitudinal study was performed in which 176 pregnant women completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) before 13, at 22, and at 32 weeks of gestation, so that changes in nutrient intake throughout pregnancy could be recorded. Around 22 weeks, a dietary history was performed and a maternal blood sample was collected. Immediately after delivery, a blood sample from the umbilical vein and a piece of the umbilical cord were collected. Fatty acid compositions were determined for phospholipids (PLs) isolated from maternal and umbilical plasma and from umbilical vein and artery vessel walls.

RESULTS:

No significant differences in the mean daily intake of total fat, saturated fat, mono-unsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat and linoleic acid (18:2(n-6), LA) were observed between the three trimesters. Maternal LA intake was positively associated with LA levels in maternal and umbilical plasma and negatively associated with 20:3(n-9), 18:3(n-3), 20:4(n-3) and 22:5(n-3) levels in maternal plasma, with 20:5(n-3) levels in umbilical plasma and with 22:6(n-3) levels in umbilical vein vessel walls. Significant positive correlations for almost all (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids were observed between maternal and umbilical plasma levels.

CONCLUSIONS:

The maternal dietary fat composition appears to be consistent during pregnancy. A high maternal LA intake may have a lowering effect on the maternal as well as on the neonatal (n-3) fatty acid status. Finally, neonatal EFA status is strongly related to maternal EFA status.

PMID:
8632115
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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