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Immunity. 1996 May;4(5):455-69.

TNF regulates the in vivo occupancy of both distal and proximal regulatory regions of the MCP-1/JE gene.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.


In vivo genomic footprinting (IVGF) was used to examine regulatory site occupancy during the activation of the murine inflammatory response gene MCP-1/JE by TNF. In response to TNF, both promoter distal and proximal regulatory regions became occupied in vivo. EMSA analysis showed that while some of the factors involved in expression, including NF-kappa B, were translocated to the nucleus following TNF treatment, others were already present and able to bind DNA in vitro. Protein kinase inhibitor studies showed that protein phosphorylation was required for TNF activation but not factor assembly. These studies provide evidence for a multistep model of TNF-mediated gene regulation involving chromatin accessibility, transcription factor complex assembly, and protein phosphorylation.

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