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J Biol Chem. 1996 Apr 12;271(15):9090-9.

Functional analysis of the human cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 promoters.

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CV Therapeutics, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA.


The D-type cyclins promote progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle and may provide a link between growth factors and the cell cycle machinery. We determined the nucleotide sequence of the 5'-flanking region of the human cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 genes and identified the transcription start sites. Analysis of the upstream sequences required for transcription of the cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 genes in continuously dividing cells revealed marked differences in their regulatory elements. In the cyclin D2 gene positive elements were localized between positions -306 and -114 relative to the ATG codon at +1. Additional positive elements were localized between -444 and -345, whereas sequences that reduced transcription were identified between nucleotides -1624 and -892. In the cyclin D3 gene all of the positive elements required for maximal transcription were localized between nucleotides -366 and -167, and no negative elements were found. The activities of a reporter gene linked to the upstream regulatory sequences of the cyclin D2 gene but not the cyclin D3 gene were induced when starved cells were serum stimulated. This suggests that although the abundance of both the cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 mRNAs is increased by serum stimulation, only the cyclin D2 gene is up-regulated at the transcriptional level. Sequences between nucleotides -306 and -1624 of the cyclin D2 gene were necessary for serum inducibility.

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