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N Engl J Med. 1996 Jun 6;334(23):1491-7.

Oral ganciclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in persons with AIDS. Roche Cooperative Oral Ganciclovir Study Group.

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1
University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, 92093-0672, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In the advanced stages of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease, particularly vision-damaging retinitis due to CMV is common. We evaluated prophylactic treatment with orally administered ganciclovir as a way to prevent CMV disease.

METHODS:

We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of CMV infected persons with AIDS with either CD4+ lymphocyte counts of < or = 50 per cubic millimeter or counts of < or = 100 per cubic millimeter in those with a history of an AIDS defining opportunistic infection. Patients were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive either oral ganciclovir (1000 mg three times daily) or placebo.

RESULTS:

The study was stopped after a median 367 days of follow-up. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the twelve month cumulative rates of confirmed CMV disease were 26 percent in the placebo group (n = 239) and 14 percent in the ganciclovir group (n = 486), representing an overall reduction in risk of 49 percent in the ganciclovir group (P < 0.001). The incidence of CMV retinitis after 12 months was 24 percent in the placebo group and 12 percent in the ganciclovir group (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of CMV-positive urine cultures at base line was 42 percent; after two months it was 43 percent in the placebo group and 10 percent in the ganciclovir group (P < 0.0001). The one year mortality rate was 26 percent in the placebo group and 21 percent in the ganciclovir group (P = 0.14). Therapy with granulocyte colony stimulating factor was more frequent in the ganciclovir group (24 percent) than in the placebo group (9 percent).

CONCLUSIONS:

In persons with advanced AIDS, phophylactic oral ganciclovir significantly reduces the risk of CMV disease.

PMID:
8618603
DOI:
10.1056/NEJM199606063342302
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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