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Virology. 1996 Apr 15;218(2):362-71.

Sequence requirements of ATF2 and CREB binding to the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 LTR R region.

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Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.


We have identified crucial transcription factor contact sites within the distal portion of the HTLV-1 LTR R region. Single base substitutions within this region greatly reduce formation of a complex which we previously described as a 70-kDa nuclear protein interacting with a CREB-like protein. Comparison of published sequences of HTLV-1 isolates obtained from scattered geographic locations revealed that clustered mutations in an 8-base segment near the U5 junction do, in fact, occur naturally. A single base substitution corresponding to a common naturally occurring mutation was introduced into the R region of an HTLV-1-LTR Cat construct. This resulted in derepression of the promoter in a cell line expressing high levels of the R region binding complex when compared to the wild-type LTR promoter. Affinity purification and electrophoretic mobility super-shift analysis identified a dominant 70-kDa DNA binding protein as ATF-2. Phosphorylated ATF-2 apparently interacts with CREB to form this downstream complex.

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